El Nino-southern oscillation (ENSO) wind changes is too weak as expressed by its sea-level response in the western Pacific.

The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is an integral part of the global thermohaline circulation and climate system (see Gordon, 2001; Sprintall et al., 2001 for recent overviews), providing a low-latitude pathway for the transfer of warm, low-salinity Pacific waters into the Indian Ocean.


The solid arrows represent north Pacific thermocline water; the dashed arrows are south Pacific lower thermocline water. Transports in Sv (106 m3/s) are given in red. The 10.5 Sv in italics is the sum of the flows through the Lesser Sunda passages. ME is the Mindanao Eddy; HE is the Halmahera Eddy. Superscript refers to reference source: 1, Makassar Strait transport in 1997 (Gordon et al., 1999); 2, Lombok Strait (Murray and Arief, 1988; Murray et al., 1990) from January 1985 to January 1986; 3, Timor Passage (between Timor and Australia) measured from March 1992 to April 1993 (Molcard et al., 1996); 4, Timor Passage, between October 1987 and March 1988 (Cresswell et al., 1993); 5, Ombai Strait (north of Timor, between Timor and Alor Island) from December 1995 to December 1996 (Molcard et al., 2001); 6, between Java and Australia from 1983 to 1989 XBT data (Meyers et al., 1995; Meyers, 1996); 7, Upper 470 m of the South Equatorial Current in the eastern Indian Ocean in October 1987 (Quadfasel et al., 1996); 8, Average ITF within the South Equatorial Current defined by five WOCE WHP sections (Gordon et al., 1997). The hollow arrow represents overflow of dense Pacific water across the Lifamatola Passage into the deep Banda Sea, which may amount to about 1 Sv (van Aken et al., 1988). Inserts A–D show the positions of the INSTANT moorings. Insert A: position of the two Makassar Strait inflow moorings (US, red diamond) within Labani Channel. Insert C: position of the Netherland’s mooring within the main channel of Lifamatola Passage (yellow triangle). Insert B, D: position of the Sunda moorings in Ombai Strait, Lombok strait, and Timor Passage (US, red diamonds; French, purple square; Australian, green circles). The positions of the shallow pressure gauge array (SPGA) (US, green X). The 100, 500, and 1,000 m isobaths are shown in the inserts.

Published by Bapon Fakhruddin

Dr Fakhruddin is an expert climate change risk assessor with 18 years’ global experience in working on disaster risk and climate resilience projects. This experience is a major advantage in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategy development. His key areas of expertise are climate and multi-hazard risk assessment, disaster preparedness, early warning and emergency response and coastal community resilience. He has designed climate change and disaster response projects more than 25 countries in Asia and the Pacific. During his career, Dr Fakhruddin helped to design major international multi-hazard early warning systems for floods, cyclone and tsunami to save life and property damage. His most high profile work has been developing multi-hazard warning systems including a tsunami warning system for Indian Ocean countries following the deadliest one in history - the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami. Dr Fakhruddin is currently work as a mentor and supervisor for postgraduate study in disaster risk management in University of Auckland (UoA). He is a Science Committee Member of IRDR of ICSU/UNISDR, Co-Chair for the Disaster Loss DATA and Risk Interpretation and Applications (RIA) Working Group of IRDR of ICSU/UNISDR. He is also Co-Chair CODATA task group Linked Open Data for Global Disaster Risk Research (LODGD) and PSG member of the Coastal Inundation Forecasting Demonstration Project (CIFDP) and Open Panel of Commission for Hydrology Experts (OPACHE) of WMO. Recently Dr Fakhruddin appointed by the Government of New Zealand to develop national climate change risk assessment framework

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